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Gary Null began this investigative report by examining some basic beliefs that we, as members of a "modern" society, often accept without question.  Then, over the next few months, Gary will continue to reveal the effects of specific vaccines and the disturbing conclusions of scientific peer review studies as he continues to probe the health, economic, political and legal implications of immunization.

Note: The information on this website is not a substitute for
diagnosis and treatment by a qualified, licensed professional.

Vaccines: Are They Really Safe?

Copyright 1998 by Gary Null, Ph.D.
Patrick Jennings, Editor

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Complete Table of Contents

Part 3

Complete Table of Contents

Effects of Specific Vaccines

A look back through history reveals very different stories about vaccines from the ones told today. In fact, medical literature documents increases in the conditions they are designed to prevent and various degrees of side-effects, even death. Thus, vaccines are neither safe nor effective. Following is a close look at the serious problems caused by specific vaccines.

"The medical literature has a surprising number of studies documenting vaccine failure. Measles, mumps, small pox, polio and Hib outbreaks have all occurred in vaccinated populations. In 1989, the CDC reported: Among school-aged children, [measles] outbreaks have occurred in schools with vaccination levels of greater than 98 percent. They have occurred in all parts of the country, including areas that had not reported measles for years. The CDC even reported a measles outbreak in a documented 100 percent vaccinated population. A study examining this phenomenon concluded, ‘The apparent paradox is that as measles immunization rates rise to high levels in a population, measles becomes a disease of immunized persons. A more recent study found that measles ‘produce immune suppression which contributes to an increased susceptibility to other infections. These studies suggest that the goal of complete immunization is actually counterproductive, a notion underscored by instances in which epidemics followed complete immunization of entire countries. Japan experienced yearly increases in small pox following the introduction of compulsory vaccines in 1872. By 1892, there were 29,979 deaths, and all had been vaccinated. Early in this century, the Philippines experienced their worst smallpox epidemic ever after 8 million people received 24.5 million vaccine doses; the death rate quadrupled as a result. In 1989, the country of Oman experience a widespread polio outbreak six months after achieving complete vaccination. In the U.S. in 1986, 90% of 1300 pertussis cases in Kansas were ‘adequately vaccinated’. 72% of pertussis cases in the 1993 Chicago outbreak were fully up to date with their vaccinations."80-90

"The following are just a few of the specific contraindications listed by vaccine manufacturers in their product inserts:

For DPT Vaccine: ‘Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including thimerosal, a mercury derivative, is a contraindication’…’Routine immunization [with DPT] should be deferred during an outbreak of poliomyelitis…’ ‘The occurrence of any type of neurological symptoms or signs, including one or more convulsions (seizures) following administration of this product is a contraindication to further use. Use of this product is also contraindicated if the child has a personal history of seizures. The presence of any evolving or changing disorder affecting the central nervous system is a contraindication to administration of DTP regardless of whether the suspected neurological disorder is associated with occurrence of seizure activity of any type.’

For DTaP Vaccine: ‘Influenza virus vaccine should not be given within three days of the administration of [the vaccine].’

For MMR Vaccine: ‘Due caution should be employed in administration of MMR to persons with a history of cerebral injury, individual or family histories of convulsions, or any other condition in which stress due to fever should be avoided.

For OPV Vaccine: ‘Immunization should be deferred during the course of any febrile illness or acute infection. In addition, immunization should be deferred in the presence of persistent vomiting or diarrhea, or suspected gastroenteritis infection’… ‘Prior to administration of the vaccine, the attending physician should warn or specifically direct personnel acting under their authority to convey the warnings to the vaccine, parent guardian or other responsible person of the possibility of vaccine-associated paralysis, particularly to the recipient, family members and other close personal contact… The responsible adult should be informed of precautions to be taken such as handwashing after diaper changes.’

For HiB Vaccine: ‘Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine, including diphtheria toxoid or thimerosal in the multidose presentation, is a contraindication.’

For Varicella Zoster Vaccine: ‘Pregnancy should be avoided for three months following vaccination.’… ‘Vaccine recipients should avoid use of salicylates [aspirin] for 6 weeks after vaccination with [the vaccine]…’"91

The Diphtheria and Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DPT) Vaccines

In the 15 years following the introduction of the diphtheria vaccine in 1894, the number of deaths in England and Wales rose 20%. Between 1895 and 1907, there were 63,249 cases of diphtheria in individuals treated with anti-toxin; 8,917 people died, a fatality rate of 14%. In the same time period, there were 11,716 cases not treated with anti-toxin; only 703 died, a fatality rate of 6%.

On January 1, 1926, the American Medical Association (AMA) started a drive to abolish diphtheria by 1930. Despite their efforts, states pushing the diphtheria vaccine the most had the highest death rates by 1930. Michigan had one of the highest rates of inoculation, and the most diphtheria death.

In 1928, a commission into childhood fatalities in Austria reported that 18 out of 21 children who received the diphtheria toxin became ill. Twelve subsequently died.

From 1941 to 1944, the Scottish Ministry of Health admitted that over 23,000 cases of diphtheria occurred in vaccinated children, and that over 180 children died of the disease.

In Germany, compulsory mass immunization commenced in 1940. By 1945, diphtheria cases were up from 40,000 to 250,000.

In Hungary, where immunization had been required since 1938, there has been a 35% increase in the number of diphtheria cases. Geneva, Switzerland fared no better. In 1933, when mandatory vaccination was enforced, the number of cases tripled in a three year period.

Another tragedy took place in Naples, Italy, in July 1978 when a number of children were vaccinated with diphtheria tetanus toxoid. Within 24 hours, they were admitted to the hospital. Five of these children died and 59 additional deaths occurred within a period of eight months.

Meryl Dorey says that the triple antigen, DPT, can cause severe side effects, according to the Centers for Disease Control in the United States.92 Dorey describes several of these, saying, "One child in 350 will suffer from convulsions or shock collapse, a nearly comatose state where they become very white. One child in 100 will have a high pitched unusual cry for three hours or more. They actually call it a cerebral cry. It’s a possible indication that the brain has become involved in some way. And one child in 66 will run a temperature of 105 degrees Fahrenheit or more, which is a very high temperature. These are just the accepted short-term reactions to this vaccine. These reactions are actually much more common than reactions to whooping cough itself."

According to Jamie Murphy, "At least 50 percent of the cases of pertussis in the United States are occurring in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 who have gotten the full regimen of five DPT shots.93 In fact, the medical literature says explicitly that immunity to pertussis wanes in the 12 years following the last DPT shot, which is at age 6. So between the ages of 6 and 18 immunity to DPT progressively wanes. This is a medical fact. I’ve read it in at least 10 studies on the pertussis vaccine. And yet they do nothing about it. What does that say? Five DPT shots given about every 15 months to a child is not protected him or her from pertussis. Why do they keep thinking this vaccine is working when it is not?"

Lo Fisher, co-author of DPT: A Shot in the Dark, states, "We found an astonishing amount of scientific evidence in 50 years of medical literature that the DPT can cause a whole range of chronic immunological and neurological dysfunction, including seizure disorders, paralysis, learning disabilities, and other chronic conditions.94 In fact, when the Institute of Medicine came out with three independent reports in 1991 and 1994, they discovered that these vaccines can cause a whole range of chronic conditions, including arthritis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The institute’s most dramatic conclusion was that there has been little basic research into how and why vaccines can cause immune system and brain dysfunction. They also noted that there have been no large, controlled epidemiological studies comparing the health of the unvaccinated to the vaccinated. Due to these two facts, the Institute of Medicine was unable to conclude whether more than 40 health problems were associated with vaccines, such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and autism.

In the past year, some brave scientists have been investigating the biological mechanism of vaccine injury and death. They have found that the DPT vaccine is associated with the development of asthma."

Vera Schreiber notes that an "Outbreak of whooping cough occurred in Cincinnati, 1993, and 84 percent of children who got whooping cough were fully vaccinated.95 In 1979, Sweden actually discontinued whooping cough vaccinations because, again, in that 1978 worldwide epidemic of whooping cough, 84 percent of Swedish children who got whooping cough were fully vaccinated. The government read the statistics correctly and discontinued whooping cough vaccination.

"The age distribution of whooping cough then returned to normal meaning that with no vaccination against whooping cough at all, 90 percent of cases of whooping cough in Sweden occurred between 2-1/2 and 10 years of age. No incidence below the age of six months was seen. Actually, quite recently, in October, one of the major Swedish vaccinators, if you like, came to my seminar. I told him that he achieved without any vaccination what the American vaccinators could not achieve without full, mandatory vaccination. He made the whooping cough disease mild. Whooping cough is only a potential disease in babies below the age of six months, not between 2 and 10 years of age. In contrast to this, when the Untied States mandated vaccination in 1978, it resulted in a three-fold 300 percent increase in the incidence of whooping cough, particularly in babies between two and six months of age. Nobody denies that vaccines can cause stress to babies. But when I started looking at these medical papers, dealing with vaccination on all levels, then I changed my attitude. I realized that vaccines are not what they are presented to be. As such, they do not prevent diseases; they cause diseases.

"The Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) of the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre Study (1982) (Australia) published interesting data on age distribution of whooping cough before and during mass vaccination programmes and also after the compliance to vaccinate fell below 30%.

"The death and case fatality ratios declined tenfold in the mid-1950s (long before the vaccine was introduced in 1957). The age distribution before 1957 was such that about 10% occurred in age group 0-1 year and two thirds in age group 1-4 years. However, in 1970-1975, the rate of whooping cough cases in 0-1 year group exceeded that in 1-4 years group (70%). This was the time of the highest uptake of the vaccine. The case fatality in this age group was 20 times that in the other age groups. When the uptake of the vaccine fell dramatically in 1975, this was followed by a reversal to normal age distribution of whooping cough, i.e. the incidence in the 0-1 year age group fell dramatically compared with the incidence in the 1-4 years age group. Quite obviously, pertussis vaccine was spreading the disease to the very infants supposed to be protected by it

"In 1977, an epidemic of whooping cough occurred in a rural practice in Shetland, containing 144 children under 16. Before 1 July 1974 all children were immunised against pertussis, but after that date immunisation stopped. The incidence of infection was similar in those who had and who had not been immunised, and in those born before and after 1974. Ditchburn (1979) described the epidemic in detail. The first child affected by the pertussis epidemic was a 15-year-old girl who was fully immunised as a child. The first eight of the case children were fully immunised. Overall, whooping cough occurred in 46 (49%) of 93 immunised children and in 18 (44%) of 41 unimmunised children.

"Ditchburn (1979) considered it interesting that the outbreak started among the older children, the immunisation rate of whom was 94%. If the immunisation had been effective, this high rate should have produced herd immunity sufficient to have prevented the epidemic. It did not and almost half of the children under 16 years and some adults were affected. The illness was relatively mild. No child suffered permanent damage and there were no hospital admissions, though the disease was unpleasant and prolonged. One child who started having convulsions on the night of his second triple antigen developed whooping cough in the 1977 outbreak."96, 97

"Proponents of vaccination are so enmeshed in their belief in the efficacy of vaccines that they appear totally oblivious to evidence to the contrary. They are also totally blind to the observed fact that most unvaccinated children do not contract the disease – even after exposure. Perhaps the most instructive example of this is the Swedish trial of two Japanase acellular vaccines. After the trial was completed several published papers discussed the efficacy of the vaccines. However, nobody commented on one very obvious fact: the vast majority of children who were given the "placebo" (vaccine diluent) did not contract whooping cough during the follow-up period of some 19 months. They should have asked that one all-important question: just what exactly protected these children? Because the same factor must also be protecting immunised children from contracting whooping cough, and not the vaccine."

"We know that today, in the US, with 98% immunisation status due to enforced vaccination, epidemics of measles still occur at three to four year intervals, unabated and uninfluenced by vaccination.

"Epidemilogists have a hard time explaining this recurrence, yet it is really quite easy to see why. First of all, Hedrich (1933) talked about natural immunity, achieved by contracting measles still occur means that vaccination against measles is totally ineffective. Measles occurs irrespective of and despite vaccination. It is governed by the same rules of natural immunity (there is no other true immunity) which is achieved only by contracting measles, as in Hedrich’s time. The major difference between then and now is that, due to vaccination, we now have atypical measles, an especially vicious form of measles resisting treatment, and the so-called ‘mild measles’ with under-developed rash, which exposes children in later life to dangerous of chronic diseases, including cancer."98

"In one study, according to their own statistics and means of measuring, it was determined that the effectiveness of the DTP vaccine after one dose was 44% or less....

"A study of the safety and effectiveness of the new acellular pertussis vaccine was conducted involving 2,388 children. Though their conclusions were that the side effects

were fewer than those expected from the whole cell vaccine, they also mentioned that 'these studies are not large enough to detect the more serious effects, such as seizures and encephalitis'. So even though this vaccine is approved for use in children, were the studies done to determine the possible dangers?"99, 100, 101


"In a study of pertussis in Cincinnati in 1993, immunization records revealed that 74% of the children with pertussis who were 19 months to 12 years old had received four or five doses of DPT and 82% of those seven to 71 months old had received at least three doses of DPT vaccine. The researcher's conclusion: 'the vaccine failed to give full protection against the disease.'"102, 103


"The changing epidemiology of pertussis is of great concern in the United States. Pertussis was once a common disease of childhood, with a documented peak of 265,269 cases in 1934. However, in 1993, the number of cases reported annually almost doubled from 3,935 to 6,335; this may have been due to the known 4-year inter-epidemic cycle for this disease. Since the disease syndrome is recognized in adults with prolonged cough, adult immunization may be an effective way to reduce the incidence of pertussis in infants who are at highest risk of morbidity and mortality."104

"Sutter and Cochi (1992) studied pertussis hospitalisation and mortality in the United States between 1985 and 1988, and concluded that there is a substantial under-reporting of pertussis. Based on these indicators, the national health impact of pertussis is considerably higher than previously published reports have suggested. Applying the age-specific hospitalisation rates, 187,867 to 515,930 cases of pertussis may have occurred during the study period; instead only 14,057 cases were reported to the CDC. The reported efficacy was found to be only 2.7% to 7.5%. Using different methods of estimation, approximately 121,340 cases of pertussis may have occurred during the study period, indicating 11.6% efficacy.

"Integrating two different projections derived from US and non-US sources, and estimated 30,000 or as many as 125,000 cases of pertussis may have occurred annually in the United States. These projections suggest that pertussis has remained an important public health problem in the United States, and certainly one of much greater magnitude than published data on reported cases alone would indicate. Considering that mandatory vaccination would assure vaccination of up to 95% of all babies, the efficacy, if any, of pertussis vaccine, is very low indeed."105, 106

"In 1934, there were 265,269 cases pertussis reported in the U.S., the highest number of cases reported in one year. During the last several years, there have been between 3,000 and 7,000 cases of pertussis reported annually in the U.S., but it is thought that these figures only represent 10 to 20 percent of actual cases. In 1992, there were 4,083 pertussis cases reported in the U.S. with 5 deaths."107

"During clinical trials held in the 1980’s and early 1990’s in Europe and the Third World, the efficacy of different DPT vaccines was found to range from 36 to 96 percent. In 1993, a whooping cough outbreak in Cincinnati revealed that more than 80 percent of the children under five who got whooping cough had been appropriately vaccinated for their age with DPT vaccine."108

"Children vaccinated against pertussis can still contract the disease. (Chicago Department of Health noted that of 186 pertussis cases in Chicago fall of 1993, ‘74% were as up to date as possible on their immunizations.’)"109, 110

"More than forty years of scientific literature documents that pertussis vaccine can cause severe brain damage. But the connection between the DPT shot and minimal brain dysfunction, or learning disabilities, is much more controversial.

"While the number of severely brain damaged children is a small portion of the general population, the number of learning disabled children in America is growing at a phenomenal rate. Schools are increasingly burdened with the need to set up special

education programs. The learning disabled population in the public schools of America rose from 830,000 in 1958 to just under two million in 1989, according to the National Center for Educational Statistics, and this number increased even as school enrollment declined. Is it a coincidence that this dramatic rise in America's learning disabled population occurred precisely during the three decades when pertussis vaccine was being extended to include virtually all American children?"111


"Of all the childhood vaccines in use today probably the one against whooping cough (pertussis) is the most dangerous. It is a whole cell vaccine, meaning that it is made from the same bacterium (Bordetella pertussis) that causes the disease. And this microbe has been qualified by Margaret Pittman, a prominent U.S. pertussis vaccine researcher, as 'unique among infectious bacteria in its marked ability to modify biological responses.'

"If whooping cough can 'modify biological responses' in this polyvalent way, the pertussis vaccine can do the same. That pertussis vaccine reactions are indeed varied and numerous is borne out, for example, by the 1986 package insert for the Connaught Laboratories product:

"Adverse reactions which may be local and include pain, erythema, heat, edema, and induration...are common... Some data suggest that febrile reactions are more likely to occur in those who have experienced such responses after prior doses... Sterile abscesses at the site of injection have been reported... Mild systemic reactions, such as fever, drowsiness, fretfulness, and anorexia occur quite frequently... Rash, allergic reaction, and respiratory difficulties, including apnea, have been observed. Moderate to severe systemic events, such as fever of 40.5 C. (105 F.) or higher, persistent inconsolable crying lasting three hours or more, unusual high pitched screaming, collapse, or convulsions occur relatively infrequently. More severe neurologic complications, such as a prolonged convulsion or an encephalopathy, occasionally fatal, have been reported. Rarely, an anaphylactic reaction (i.e., hives, swelling of the mouth, difficulty breathing, hypotension, or shock) has been reported... Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has occurred in infants following administration of DPT... Onset of infantile spasms has occurred in infants who have recently received DPT or DT..."112-115

"In 1979, Sweden discontinued their pertussis vaccine because of public concern about severe adverse reactions and it was thought that the 'protection' levels against pertussis were unacceptably low."116, 117


"Some doctors will not give pertussis vaccine to their own children, others administer it in reduced doses in an effort to minimize possible adverse reactions. Most of the three and a half million children receiving the DPT shot every year in America will react mildly. What's worse is the department of Health and Human Services estimates that every year in the U.S., about a half million DPT shots are followed by reactions severe enough to contraindicate the administration of more pertussis vaccine. One in seven children should be turned away for further pertussis vaccine. In practice, of course, this does not happen."118, 119

"Unfortunately, the administration of the whole-cell vaccine has been temporarily associated with a series of adverse events ranging from various forms of discomfort (e.g. pain, swelling, fever, anorexia, vomiting) to encephalopathy and death. This has led to the decreased acceptance and, in some countries, the discontinued use of this vaccine, and the subsequent emergence of pertussis epidemics in several developed countries. Consequently, current efforts are focused on the development of a purified component vaccine with little or no predicted toxicity.

"It is known that in immunized populations, in which no vaccine is given to individuals after 6 years of age, a significant number -- if not most -- of infections occur in

adults with waning immunity. Thus, in the United States, adults continue to harbor pertussis and most likely will infect infants that have not been vaccinated. Because a few well-publicized events could rapidly and irrationally destroy confidence in the current vaccine program in the United States, it is most important to develop acceptable alternative vaccine before a crisis occurs."120

"In a survey conducted by Dr. Michael Odent it was found that children receiving the Pertusis (whooping cough) vaccine were six times more likely to develop asthma than children not receiving the vaccine.

"One consequence of childhood vaccinations may be that of the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), now estimated to afflict some five million young adults, primarily women. Immunologic abnormalities now being found in patients with CFS include an abnormal activation of the immune system and a decrease in the reservoir of uncommitted immune cells (once an immune cell has been committed in response to infection or vaccine, it becomes incapable of responding to new infectious challenges. In CFS patients the reservoir of uncommitted immune cells, essential for new infectious challenges, has been found to be decreased.) These changes are precisely from multiple vaccines on the highly immature systems of infants and children....

Finally there is understandable concern among public health officials and parents alike as to what would happen without the vaccines. In the case of at least one vaccine (the Pertussis vaccine) it would appear that these fears are unwarranted. It is known or suspected that this vaccine causes infantile encephalitis and sudden infant death syndrome. Also it has been implicated in invasive bacterial infections including meningitis. Many years ago Sweden banned the Pertusis vaccine because of these dangers. For similar reasons Japan delays the Pertusis vaccine until after two years of age, whereas in the USA it is usually administered at two months of age. Both Sweden and Japan are credited with having the lowest infant mortality rates in the world. This fact would tend to discredit claims that the Pertusis vaccine is necessary to prevent an escalation of infant mortality in America."121

"Although all vaccines are controversial, due to their inability to prevent infectious diseases and due to a causal link to mild or serious local systemic reactions, DPT is undoubtedly the most controversial of them all. This is partly because of the very high incidence of adverse reactions and partly because most doctors and health authorities vehemently deny any causal link between the vaccine and most of these reactions.

"Yet the bulk of information on pertussis vaccine dangers and ineffectiveness has been published in medical journals. Most importantly, DPT vaccine with its pertussis component has been linked to cot death."122

"The National Childhood Encelphalopathy Study (NCES) was carried out in England, Wales and Scotland from 1 July 1976 to 30 June 1979. During the study period, 1,182 children were hospitalised with acute severe neurological illness. The findings were quite important. One of them was that DPT vaccination had occurred significantly more frequently within 72 hours and the first seven days after vaccine injections in the children with neurological illness than in the controls at the same time periods. A similar analysis for DT also showed an increase in relative risk of neurological illness in affected children compared with controls. The estimated risk of serious neurological disorder within seven days of DPT immunisation in previously normal children was estimated to be one in 110,000 immunisations and the estimated rate of permanent brain damage one year later was estimated to be one in 310,000 immunisations."123

"Stewart (1977) was convinced that adverse reactions are more common and more serious than is generally acknowledged. He wrote that examination of national data and survey of the resent position in Glasgow reinforces the published views that present schedules of vaccination with B. pertussis are ineffective and that epidemiological monitoring of efficacy and adverse reactions is incomplete. Stewart then analysed 69 cases of whooping cough in a family study, of whom 47 (68%) had been fully vaccinated. In a school study, 59 cases of whooping cough were identified from absence records in ten primary schools. The majority of cases were in children who had received three injections of DPT vaccine. He also established that notifications in this group by general practitioners to the Health Department were significantly fewer than the notifications of whooping cough in children who were unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated. On the subject of permanent brain damage, Stewart (1977) reasoned that if the risk is one in 20,000 then at least 30 children will suffer permanent brain damage each year. This far exceeds the risk of death or permanent brain damage from whooping cough disease or even, in some parts of the country, the chance of contracting it."124, 125

"Just how shocked the American paediatric community was by the fiasco of the Swedish trial of Japanese acellular vaccines is demonstrated by the fact that the American Academy of Pediatrics, in their article published in Pediatrics (1992), wrote that ‘A licensure application has been made for B-type vaccine based in part on the results of this Swedish Trial’ and did not add that the same application for licensure of one of the acellular Japanese vaccines was withdrawn. Neither did they admit that Sweden has not resumed pertussis vaccination after the Swedish trial. Instead, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that all American infants be immunised with five doses of pertussis vaccine beginning at two months of age. The initial series of three doses should be given with the whole-cell preparation. The new acellular vaccine should be used only for the fourth and fifth doses for children older than 15 months and younger than 7 years."126

"DPT vaccination is mandatory in the United States. While a great number of papers on the vaccination problems were being published in US medical journals, mass vaccination has been widely practised and enforced, and doctors adopted a general attitude of rejecting any connection between the observed adverse reactions (convulsions, hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes), and especially of deaths, and the administered vaccines. This effort to minimise or disregard a causal relationship between vaccine injections and untoward reactions was probably precipitated by fear of upsetting the mandatory use of vaccines and fear of accepting responsibility.

"Among the best evidence of the dangers of pertussis vaccine is the paper presented by Hutchins et al (1988). The incidence and mortality from whooping cough fell steadily between 1922 and 1975. In 1978 a nationwide immunisation initiative was begun; legislation was passed requiring proof of immunisation for school entry at five to six years of age. Almost immediately the overall incidence of pertussis in the United States trebled, especially in the age group below six months. This age group also experienced the highest mortality from whooping cough."127, 128

"Osterholm et al (1988) evaluated the efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae b polysaccharide vaccine in children in Minnesota and concluded that vaccination with Hib vaccine had no effect in preventing Hib type disease. In another publication (Daum et al 1989), it was demonstrated, that there was an increased incidence of invasive Hib disease within a week or so in children vaccinated with the vaccine.

"Despite discontinuing pertussis vaccination in 1979, Sweden trialed two Japanese accellular vaccines in 1986-87 (Storsaeter et al 1987). The trial was concluded without recommendation to introduce pertussis vaccination ‘…because of concern about the possibility of an increased rate of death from invasive disease cause by encapsulated bacteria in vaccine recipients; efficacy based on the definition used to diagnose pertussis during the trial, was also lower than expected.’ (Hinman & Orenstein 1990). Indeed, the Swedish health authorities withdrew the application for licensure of the Japanese acellular pertussis vaccine (Anonymous 1989).

"During the trial, out of 2847 children given either of the two vaccines, eleven developed invasive infections and 4 died; this was unacceptably high, compared with the estimated incidence of one (Ad Hoc Group for the Study of Pertussis Vaccine, 1988)."129-133

"The serious reactions most frequently reported to occur after DPT vaccination are prolonged crying for more than 3 hours; high pitched screaming; hypotonic/hyporesponsive or collapse/shock; fever over 103 F.; extreme lethargy (excessive sleepiness); and convulsions. A FDA/UCLA study published in 1981 concluded that 1 in 875 DPT shots is followed by a convulsion or collapse/shock.

"Some children who suffer serious reactions to DPT vaccine go on to develop brain inflammation and permanent brain dysfunction. The British National Childhood Encephalopathy Study (NCES) which was the largest and most highly controlled study of brain damage in children ever conducted, found that 1 in 110,000 DPT shots results in a brain inflammation and 1 in 310,000 DPT shots results in permanent brain damage.

"Other serious DPT reactions which have been reported included bulging fontanel (the soft spot on the newborn infant’s head crown swells); cardiac and respiratory distress; apnea; Guillain-Barre syndrome; anaphylaxis; and mono and polyneuropathies. Other less serious reactions commonly reported are redness, pain, swelling and soreness at the injection site; rash; vomiting; diarrhea; loss of appetite; otitis media (inner ear infection) and respiratory infections."134

"A Centers for Disease Control analysis in 1987 found that children who have a personal history of convulsions are nine times more likely to have a seizure following DPT vaccination and children who have a family history of convulsions are three time more likely to have a seizure following a DPT vaccination than children who do not have a personal or family history of convulsions."135

"The FDA’s VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Effects Reporting System) receives about 11,000 reports of serious adverse reactions to vaccination annually, some 1% (112+) of which are deaths from vaccine reactions. The majority of these reports are made by doctors, and the majority of deaths are attributed to the pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, the "P" in DPT. This figure alone is alarming, yet it is only the ‘tip of the iceberg.’ The FDA estimates that only about 10% of adverse reactions are reported, a figure supported by two National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) investigations. In fact, the NVIC reported that ‘In New York, only one of 40 doctor’s offices (2.5%) confirmed that they report a death or injury following vaccination,’ – 97.5% of vaccine related deaths and disabilities go unreported there. Implications about the integrity of medical professionals aside (doctors are legally required to report serious adverse effects), these findings suggest that vaccine deaths actually occurring each year may be well over 1,000.

"With pertussis, the number of vaccine-related deaths dwarfs the number of disease deaths, which have been about 10 annually for recent years according to the CDC, and only 8 in 1993, the last peak-incidence year (pertussis runs in 3-4 year cycles, though vaccination certainly doesn’t). Simply put, the vaccine is 100 times more deadly than the disease. Given the many instances in which highly vaccinated populations have contracted disease, and the fact that the vast majority of disease decline this century occurred before compulsory vaccinations (pertussis deaths decline 79% prior to vaccines), this comparison is a valid one and – this enormous number of vaccine casualties can hardly be considered a necessary sacrifice for the benefit of a disease-free society.

"Unfortunately, the vaccine-related-deaths story doesn’t end here. Both national and international studies have shown vaccination to be a cause of SIDS. One study found the peak incidence of SIDS occurred at the ages of 2 and 4 months in the U.S. precisely when the first two routine immunizations are given, while another found a clear pattern of correlation extending three weeks after immunization. Another study found that 3,000 children die within 4 days of vaccination each year in the U.S., (amazingly, the authors reported no SIDS/vaccine relationship), while yet another researcher’s studies led to the conclusion that half of SIDS cases – that would be 2500 to 5000 infant deaths in the U.S. each year – are caused by vaccines."136-139

"Low adverse event reporting also suggests that the total number of adverse reactions actually occurring each year may be more than 100,000. Due to doctor’s failure to report, no one knows how many of these are permanent disabilities, but statistics suggest that it is several times the number of deaths. This concern is reinforced by a study which revealed that 1 in 175 children who completed the full DPT series suffered severe reactions and a Dr.’s report for attorneys which found that 1 in 300 DPT immunizations resulted in seizures.

"England actually saw a drop in pertussis deaths when vaccination rates dropped from 80% to 30% in the mid 70’s. Swedish epidemiologist B. Trollfors’ study of pertussis vaccine efficacy and toxicity around the world found that ‘pertussis-associated mortality is currently very low in industrialized countries and no difference can be discerned when countries with high, low, and zero immunisation rates were compared. He also found that England, Wales, and West Germany had more pertussis fatalities in 1970 when the immunization rate was high than during the last half of 1980, when rates had fallen.140-143


"Granoff et al. (1986) analysed 228 reports of invasive disease due to Hib in vaccinated children submitted to the FDA administration between May 1985 and September 1987. Over 90% of these children were more than 24 months of age, when the vaccine is supposed to be somewhat effective. A high proportion of cases were reported to have occurred with the first two months after vaccination, with 10 cases occurring within 72 hours of vaccine injections. Vaccination, with 10 cases occurring within 72 hours of vaccine injections. Vaccination did not alter the expected frequencies of the different Hib diseases."144, 145

"Daum et al. (1989) confirmed that a decrease in serum antibody in the three weeks after administration occurs in most children and adults injected with any of the two vaccines. The lowest point occurred on days 1 to 3.

"Another study [Granoff et al. (1986)] deals with 55 cases of invasive Hib diseases occurring in Children at least three weeks after vaccination. Meningitis developed in 39 children of whom 3 died and 6 had neurologic after-effects. The level of antibody to Hib in convalescent-phase serum from 31 of the vaccinated children who had Hib disease was significantly lower than that in the serum from 25 patients of similar age (range 17 to 47 months) with the disease who had never received the Hib vaccine.

"All studies of efficacy of Hib vaccines admit that the vaccine is ineffective in children younger than 18 months.

"Norway conceded that the protective effect of another vaccine, outer membrane meningococcal b, was insufficient to justify a public vaccination programme [Bjune et al. (1991)].

"Ward et al. (1990) trialled PRP-D vaccine in 2102 Alaskan native children and found there was no ‘significant’ protective efficacy with the vaccine. There was a lower incidence of Hib infections in babies not participating in the study and the ‘vaccine’ group, very similar to the rate in the ‘placebo’ group. There were more cases of aseptic meningitis and sudden infant death in the ‘vaccine’ group than among the ‘controls’ (the authors did not tabulate or give exact figures).

"The results must of necessity raise questions about the relevance of the original Finnish studies, especially since the same (negative results were obtained when the same vaccine batch was given to Finnish babies and infants in Albany, New York [Ward et al.


"Decker et al. (1992) performed a double-blind, randomised trial to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of four conjugate Hib vaccines by injecting them into 2, 4 and 6 months old infants. The four vaccines differed markedly in their ability to stimulate the production of antibodies (PRP, PRP-D, PRP-CRM {PRP conjugated with cross-reacting mutant diphtheria protein} and PRP-OMP).

"Of these vaccines only PRP-OMP (polyribosylribitol phosphate conjugated with outer membrane protein of Neisseria meningitidis) produced what the authors considered a clinically pertinent elevation in antibody level after one or two injections in 75% of infants. However, even with this vaccine, the third injection did not elicit further significant elevation of antibody levels.

"Nevertheless, the PRP-OMP vaccine was licensed for routine administration at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

"The levels of antibodies reported by these authors were lower than those reported in other studies. Decker et al. (1992) found this intriguing, but could not offer any explanation.

"Perhaps the most soul-destroying experiment with Haemophilus influenzae b vaccine is the one conducted on some 5,000 Navajo Indian babies from July 1988 to August 1990, described in a paper by Santosham et al. (1991). 2,588 Navajo infants were given the Hib vaccine together with DPT and OPV (oral polio vaccine); 2,602 Navajo babies were given DPT and OPV with placebo (2 mg of lactose) injection. The first dose was given at 42 to 90 days or age and the second at 70 to 146 days. The mean follow-up time was 269 days in the ‘vaccine’ group and 267 in the ‘placebo’ group.

"An independent monitoring committee was appointed to advise the investigators when to stop the study, either for reasons of safety or because the efficacy of the vaccine had been established. The committee met on 2nd August 1990 after 23 definite cases of H. influenza infection had occurred. It advised stopping the trial because of the difference in distribution of cases of H. influenzae disease between the ‘vaccine’ and ‘placebo’ groups. On two previous occasions the committee broke the study codes assigned to participants who died.

"The trial was terminated after 4,161 (80%) of participants received their second dose of ‘vaccine’ (2,056) or ‘placebo’ (2,105). 249 children of the ‘vaccine’ and 250 of the ‘placebo’ groups had received their first dose and were still eligible to receive their second dose when the trial was terminated."146-154

"Has the problem of invasive infections of Haemophilus influenzae been resolved by mass vaccination? As Peltola (1993) says in her article published in the Lancet: not at all. The number of cases of invasive infections (including meningitis) has not diminished, but instead of being associated with capsular Hib, they are now associated with non-capsular Hib in vaccinated children."155, 156

"No vaccines have been proven effective and safe, and the flu vaccine is no exception. Smith (1974), in his Lancet article on ‘Vaccination and the control of influenza,’ described the effect of influenza vaccination on Post Office staff. He compared absences due to sickness in over 50,000 employees, to whom an injection of influenza was offered any vaccination. He concluded that the ‘annual offer of an injection of influenza vaccine in a large industry has not resulted in a significant reduction in sickness’.157, 158

"In 1995, out of 74 Hib disease cases where age and vaccination status were known, 41 or 55 percent had received at least on Hib shot; 22 were appropriately vaccinated for their age; and 18 had completed the primary series."159

"In 1992-1993 the isolated influenza samples for the predominant virus (influenza A (H3N2) virus) were not similar to that in the vaccine."160

"In 1994-95 the CDC found 43% of isolated influenza samples for the predominant virus were not similar to the vaccine. A virus (HINI) and the influenza B also differed from vaccine."161

"In February 1976 a human infection with a swine influenza virus occurred in five recruits at Fort Dix, a military camp in New Jersey. The antigenic composition of the virus was interpreted as a major antigenic shift and doctors expected a pandemic to occur imminently.

"An extensive mass vaccination program was planned; on March 13 the Director of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) presented to the Assistant Secretary for Health the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunisation Practices (ACIP) on a proposed total nationwide vaccination programme. President Ford signed into law the bill authorizing $135 million for a comprehensive influenza vaccination programme. From June to September 1976, a complex public-private vaccination delivery system was set up, reaching its full potential on and after October 1. Many private doctors refused to participate in the program because of the liability implications. By the end of November, various manufacturers had produced some 150 million doses of the vaccine.

"Right from the beginning this plan had one major flaw: the new strain showed no capacity of epidemic spread. Nevertheless, some 40 million adult people were vaccinated. There followed within four months the occurrence of hundreds of cases of so-called Guillain-Barre paralysis in vaccinees, with tens of deaths. Some 4,000 law suits were lodged seeking compensation for the damage sustained. Some three billion dollars were paid out in compensation.

"On 16 December 1976, the Public Health Service elected to place a moratorium on all influenza vaccines pending reassessment of vaccine risks. The moratorium was lifted on 9 February 1977 for all groups at ‘highest risk of fatal disease from infection’ with the then currently prevalent influenza A and B vaccines.

"People have short memories. Despite the above tragedy, vaccination against influenza continued and in January 1978-March 1981, during and after the 1978-1979 influenza vaccination campaign, 575 cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) were reported by participating neurologists in the national GBS surveillance system. The incidence was highest in the fifty to seventy year olds. Victims experienced respiratory and gastrointestinal of the total number of vaccinees reported receiving an A/New Jersey (swine) influenza vaccine in 1976 before being revaccinated two years later.

"This means that 67% of Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome victims experienced the well-documented phenomenon of vaccine sensitisation. They were affected by subsequent injection of the flu vaccine two years after previously receiving the initial dose of the swine flu vaccine.

"In other words, these two and a half thousand victims represented an aftermath of the swine flue debacle. However, the authors writing about the incident (Hurwitz, Schonberger, Nelson, and Holman, 1981; Kaplan, Schonberger, Hurwitz, and Katona, 1983) did not recognise this and did not correlate it with the well-documented phenomenon of vaccine-sensitisation as described in 1901 by Dr. Wright and others.

"It is quite reasonable to say that the influenza epidemic, which followed unabated in 1979-1980 despite the above mass ‘immunisation’ programmes, not only was NOT stopped but was most probably precipitated by weakening and sensitising large numbers of vaccines to the very illness the flu vaccines were purporting to prevent.

"Many deaths, described as ‘excess deaths’ in the elderly and the very young were in fact very important evidence supporting this conclusion. Mass influenza immunisation programmes (just as for measles, mumps, and rubella), instead of protecting, actually predispose many people to the disease and make them susceptible through the process of sensitisation to serious and, indeed, fatal outcomes."162, 163, 164

"In 1994, the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is compelling scientific evidence that vaccination with earlier versions of the Hib vaccine, unconjugated PRP Hib vaccines, resulted in early onset of Hib disease in children over 18 months of age. Apparently, the early Hib vaccines caused children, who had been recently vaccinated, to be more vulnerable to becoming infected with Hib disease for at least 7 days after vaccination."165

The Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis vaccine, commercially available in the United States since 1982, is supposed to be given to every American child within 12 hours of birth. Even so, "the incidence of acute hepatitis B in this country has risen from 55 per 100,000 in 1981 to 63 per hundred thousand in 1987," according to the New England Journal of Medicine (9/11/89, p. 1333).

Additionally, strong side effects have been reported following its use. In 1990, the Journal of Pediatric Child Health had this to say on the subject: "There are reports of pertussis, dysponia, urticaria, and infraorbital edema. There have also been reported six serious illnesses in a series of 200,000 hepatitis vaccinations, including multiforma, asceptic meningitis, grand mal seizure, and possible transverse myelitis, as well as 56 minor illnesses considered likely due to the vaccine. These minor illnesses include neurological tremors, Bell’s palsy, hives, herpes zoster, psoriasis, musculoskeletal generalized myalgia, joint inflammation, hepatitis-like illness, influenza-like syndrome, injection site reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and headache."

The authors conclude with these recommendations: "Until further evidence can be gathered on possible side-effects or complications from the hepatitis B vaccine, it may be worth considering only giving the vaccine to people at high risk, rather than to all the population."

Dorey adds that the hepatitis B vaccine is strongly linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome, a swelling of the nerves that can cause paralysis as well as different forms of arthritis and diabetes.166 She states, "In New Zealand, the New England Journal of Medicine published a study last year saying that there was a 60 percent increase in the rate of juvenile diabetes after the hepatitis B vaccination program started."

"According to the New England Journal of Medicine, in the USA the first commercial vaccine became available in 1982. Yet the incidence of acute hepatitis B in the USA increased from 55 per 100,000 in 1981 to 63 per 100,000 in 1987 -- hardly

convincing evidence of its efficacy."167, 168

"Marwick (1991) discussed the introduction of hep B vaccine into the current standard paediatric vaccines. This means that American infants (probably followed by Australian babies) will receive 15 injections of various vaccines with the first 6 months of life. This is hyperimmunisation par excellence."169, 170

"The well-vaccinated US is experiencing epidemics of infectious diseases in fully vaccinated children. No amount of denial and underreporting will cover up the one most obvious fact, namely, that vaccines do not work.

"Freed et al. (1993) wrote that: ‘Despite immunization programs targeting high-risk groups, the incidence of hepatitis B has risen 37% over the last decade with 300,000 (sic) new infections and 5,000 related deaths now occurring annually in the United States…’

"’This increase led the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) to re-evaluate its hepatitis B control strategy and on November 22, 1991, to recommend universal immunization of infants against hepatitis B virus.

"’778 pediatricians in North Carolina were surveyed by mail two to 34 months after publication of the new CDC recommendations. Only 32% of those questioned believed that hepatitis B vaccination was warranted in their practice.’

"’Most pediatricians simply were not convinced that the hepatitis B immunization is needed by their patients, regardless of other factors.’

"They also quoted ancedotal reports which ‘…have raised concern over the pincushion effect of multiple injections on children’.

"Following the Hippocratic dictum ‘First, do no harm,’ it would certainly be prudent to refrain from general hepatitis b vaccination of newborn infants. Knowledge of newborn immune system is inadequate; the duration of immunity, if any, conferred by the vaccine is totally unresearched and there is a wealth of information on neurological side-effects following vaccination, even with the genetically-engineered product."171, 172

"In an article on hepatitis B vaccines and surgeons, it states: 'Infection with hepatitis B virus is a serious hazard for all health workers. Surgeons are particularly at risk with potentially devastating consequences to their well-being and a major threat to their livelihood if they become carriers'. Now either surgeons do not take this threat seriously or realise that vaccinations do not offer protection, for the article goes on to say: 'Despite good evidence of an increased risk of infection, a high proportion of surgeons in this study had not been immunised... Clearly, there is a failure by all surgeons to protect themselves and to insist that junior staff are protected'."173, 174

"Shaw et al. (1988) described adverse effects occurring after inoculation with the new plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. At the time when 850,000 persons were injected with the vaccine at total of 41 spontaneous reports were received: 5 cases of convulsions, 10 cases of Bell’s palsy, 9 cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome, 5 cases of lumbar reticulopathy, 3 cases of brachial plexus neuropathy, 5 cases of ocular neuropathy and 4 cases of transverse myelitis. Half of these reactions occurred after the first of the required three doses. There were no reported deaths. The authors were quite aware that, due to under-reporting, these cases did not represent all occurrences of adverse reaction. Despite this, however, the authors concluded that the preventative benefits of the vaccine in persons of high risk for hepatitis B would unequivocally outweigh the risk of any neurologically adverse event.

"Even the recombinant hepatitis B vaccines cause serious side effects. According to the Australian Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRAC) Bulletin, August 1990, some of the 203 reports of adverse reactions to hepatitis B recombinant vaccine listed neurological and psychological effects. Of the 203 reported cases, 28 patients were subjected to re-challenge and their symptoms recurred."175, 176

"A hepatitis B vaccine manufacturer’s studies found that injection site and systemic complaints were reported following up to 17 percent of all hepatitis B injections. Reactions, which are reported to occur following more than 1 percent of hepatitis B injections, include soreness, pain and swelling at the site of the injection; fatigue and weakness; headache; fever or more than 100 F; nausea; diarrhea; throat and upper respiratory infection; sweating; body aching; lightheadedness; chills; vomiting; abdominal pain/cramps; loss of appetite; rhinitis; influenza; cough; vertigo/dizziness; rash; hives; arthritis/arthralgia including joint, back, neck and shoulder pain; neck stiffness; swollen lymph nodes; insomnia; earache and hypotension."177

The Measles/Mumps/Rubella (MMR) Vaccine

The measles vaccine is particularly ineffective, with a high percentage of those inoculated getting the disease. Jamie Murphy implies that the vaccine may, in fact, be causing the illness:178 "In one Chicago study, 90 percent of people vaccinated for measles got measles. Another group did not get vaccinated and had a very low percentage of measles....If we lived in a morally correct society, that piece of information would set up a red flag, and people would say, ‘Wait a minute! Vaccines aren’t working.’"

Murphy’s observation raises a question that no one has answered: Why are people who are vaccinated for these conditions getting them? He believes the answer is that the vaccine does not provide true immunization: "The vaccine can never duplicate the kind of immunity that we get from nature. Back in the 1950's, when I got the measles and 80 percent of children got either measles or mumps, nobody died from these diseases. It was just something that you went through. And it strengthened your immune system....

"When children get the measles after they’ve been vaccinated, they’re getting it from the vaccine and the virus (because there’s so much virus in the vaccine that stays in the body). When their resistance becomes lowered, that can become reactivated. Also, when a natural epidemic of measles occurs, as it does every three to four years in the United States, those children who have been vaccinated, because they did not get a true immunity from the vaccine, become susceptible to measles."

Murphy adds that quite a few diseases associated with the measles vaccine:179 "My research has uncovered that between 1963 and 1971, right after the live measles vaccine was brought into America, there were a number of neurological reactions recorded by the AMA that occurred after vaccination. Some of those conditions were encephalopathies (brain damage), asceptic meningitis, cranial nerve palsy, learning disabilities, hyperkinesis and severe mental retardation, along with transverse myelitis, which is an acute inflammation of both sides of the spinal cord, and ataxia, a defective muscular control which results in jerky movements.

Dorey adds that the package insert accompanying the MMR vaccine says that the vaccine may lead to arthritis or arthralgia, either long-term or temporary.180 It is also associated with Guillain-Barr paralysis, multiple sclerosis, ocular neuritis (a form of blindness), and aseptic meningitis, a swelling of the lining of the brain, which can be fatal. "According to Japanese studies," she notes, "one in 1,044 children who get this vaccine can get asceptic meningitis. It’s one of the reasons why Japan withdrew the use of the MMR vaccine in 1994." She further states that a Parliamentary investigation is currently looking into a connection between the MMR vaccine and the development of autism in children "because they found that after the MMR campaign in 1994, where more than seven million children were vaccinated and revaccinated with this vaccine, hundreds of children developed autism." Dorey adds that the long-term effects of the vaccine have not been studied, although a Dr. Wakefield in the United Kingdom has associated the MMR vaccine to ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.


"The New England Journal of Medicine reported a study which showed that between 1985 and 1986, 60% of all measles cases among school children occurred in those who were vaccinated. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that back in 1986, there were 235 cases of measles in Dane County, Wisconsin among students, and over 96% of those students had been vaccinated against measles. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly reported a study which showed that out of 1600 cases of measles in Quebec, Canada back in 1989, 58% were among those who had been vaccinated. Dr. Eleanor McBean sums up the historical failure of vaccines when she points out in her book Vaccines Do Not Protect: 'The vaccine sales pitch tells the people that vaccines wiped out smallpox, polio, diphtheria, typhoid and flu. This is not true. The blood contamination from the vaccines not only causes the same disease in severe -- even fatal form in some, but these same vaccine poisons cause other diseases such as paralysis, blindness, brain damage, cancer... Most countries abolished compulsory vaccination when it was proven repeatedly, over a long period of time, that vaccination always increased the incidence of disease and the disease was usually in those vaccinated. The localities which refused vaccinations remained practically free from disease as long as they observed proper diet and sanitation.'"181-185


"According to a study conducted by the World Health Organization, chances are about 14 times greater that measles will be contracted by those vaccinated against the disease than by those who are left alone."186, 187

"In April 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan decided to discontinue the use

of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (Sawada et al. 1993). This decision was prompted by published reports of vaccinated children and their (unvaccinated) contacts contracting mumps from the MMR vaccine, and reports of one in 1044 vaccinees developing encephalitis."188, 189

"From January to July 1987 an epidemic of mumps occurred in Chicago. A total of 106 cases occurred in persons older than 20 years. This epidemic culminated with a major outbreak of mumps (119 cases) at the Chicago futures stock exchange [Kaplan et al. (1988)]. Three of these adults had documented evidence of immunisation; ages ranged from 17 to 70 years. This epidemic is also interesting in that it occurred after an intensified push for mumps vaccination.

"It is significant that the 1967-1977 decade with very little mumps vaccination activity was a decade of very low mumps incidence. This clearly implicates the widespread use of the vaccine in the documented increase of the incidence of mumps in the United States in the eighties."190, 191

"In Australia, a very important study on rubella vaccine was performed and published by Dr. Beverly Allan. In 1973 she published her report on two trials of the Cendevax rubella vaccine in army recruits selected because of their lack of immunity as determined by blood test.

"The men produced antibodies to rubella after given Cendevax (an attenuated rubella virus). They were then sent to a camp which usually had an annual outbreak of rubella. Three to four months after vaccination, 80% of the men became ill with rubella. A further trial, performed shortly after the army trial, on institutionalised retarded people, resulted in a similar failure of vaccine to protect against rubella disease."192, 193

"’The MMR vaccine viruses are not infectious’ is an incorrect statement. According to the Medical Director of Merck Sharpe & Dohme (NZ) who manufactures the MMR vaccine: ‘The attenuated viruses in MMR can occasionally and to a limited extent be shed from a vaccinated individual into the environment. You would expect this of any virus or bacterium that infected a human body. The number of vaccinated individuals that do shed the virus is quite small but it definitely does occur, and so as a consequence of that there is a small probability that unvaccinated individuals could pick up some form of shed vaccine virus.’

"According to a study published in the British Medical Journal, 4 July 1987 which recommends that immunocompromised children should be kept away from MMR vaccinated children for two weeks after vaccination due to the exception of the virus. It is also an acknowledged fact that some people have caught paralytic polio after coming into contact with the faeces of children who had been recently vaccinated with the live polio vaccine.

"Interestingly, in April 1993 the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan decided to discontinue to use of the MMR vaccine (Sawada et al 1993; Lancet; 342 (7 August); 371). This decision was prompted by published reports of vaccinated children and their unvaccinated contacts contracting mumps from the MMR vaccine, and reports of 1 in 1044 vaccinees developing encephalitis.

"These events of infection occur because the vaccines contain live virus which can grow in the body and are excreted by the body. Another interesting fact is the registrar of a hospital in Christchurch who was found to have caught measles after being vaccinated and the PCR test (which is not routinely given to people in NZ) found that he had caught the vaccine strain of measles from the vaccine. This leads to the question of how many cases of measles this year were caused by the shed vaccine being caught by other children? No-one knows, as the normal measles lab test done does not indicate whether the virus was wild or from the vaccine strain. But it is interesting to note there was an increase in measles cases in NZ once the vaccination campaign had started. Another coincidence? Lets see what happens over the next year in Australia."194, 195

"The death rate for measles is more than 20 times higher than before the vaccine was in widespread use."196, 197

"There has been a recent resurgence of measles in the United States....During this epidemic, the epidemiology of the disease in the United States changed, and the distribution of cases shifted from older, previously vaccinated school-age children to younger, unvaccinated children. Apparently, as more outbreaks occur in younger children, more infants less than 1 year old are exposed. The increase in cases in very young infants also might be related to vaccinated mothers (as opposed to naturally infected mothers) providing lower levels of protective maternal antibody during the first year of life.

"The principal cause of the reemergence of measles in the United States is the failure to vaccinate children at the appropriate age rather than failure of vaccine efficacy. Surveys in inner-city populations indicate immunization rates of only 50 percent in children by their second birthday. Measles is highly infectious and can spread even in communities where to 80 to 90 percent of the population is immunized. As a public health tool, the current vaccine has some deficiencies. It has a primary vaccine failure rate of about 5 percent, and thus susceptible individuals accumulate in the population. This failure rate is higher if the current vaccine is given at less that 15 months of age, when maternal antibody interferes with vaccine efficacy. During the recent epidemic, there was a need to immunize younger children because, in 1990, 17 percent of cases and 16.9 percent of deaths occurred in infants under 1 year of age."198

"Even though there was a mass measles and rubella vaccination campaign in 1994 in the UK, the number of cases of rubella in Scotland is standing at a 13-year high. And probably because of the vaccine, the cases are mainly among older people -- aged between 15 and 34 -- when the disease is far more dangerous. Rubella infection, once a disease of childhood, has now become a disease of adult males who were not targeted by the various vaccination campaigns, some aimed exclusively at females, reports Janet Stevenson from the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health. In the latest outbreak, three pregnant women were infected by adults; in all, 169 people were reported to be infected in one four-week cycle, the single highest figure since 1983. About 79 percent of cases have been in adult males. A similar pattern -- where the illness suddenly became and adult one -- occurred in Finland in 1982 following a mass immunization programme there."199, 200

"Since the introduction of measles vaccine, reports of measles outbreaks in adults have appeared in medical journals. Rand et al. (1976) wrote that not only was the number of reported cases of measles six times higher in the first half of 1975 compared with 1974, but more and more adults were contracting measles. So, again, while some were claiming victory, others were brining evidence to the contrary.

"Not even booster vaccination of previously vaccinated children made any difference although some writers, against all the evidence to the contrary, were still claiming that vaccines were effective in preventing measles. While measles vaccines were effective in elevating measles-neutralising antibody in a number of children (although not in all), this had already demonstrated to be irrelevant in preventing the disease [Bellanti et al. (1971)]. Quite without any evidence to support his statement, Cherry (1980) claimed that after more than 16 years of routine measles immunisation ‘we have done well in controlling.…measles’.

"In October 1978 the Secretary of the Department of Health Education and Welfare, Joseph A. Califano Jr., announced ‘We are launching an effort that seeks to free the United States from measles by 1st of October 1981,’ [Hinman (1979)].

"Reuman (1979) warned about an increasing number of adolescents contracting measles. While in the pre-vaccine era 90% of all measles patients were 5-9 years old, in the post-vaccine era 55% to 64% were older than 10 years. The average age of patients during the measles outbreak in the UCLA was 20-24 years and 91% of the students were found to have measles-specific antibodies. According to Reuman (1979), the history of natural measles, or measles vaccination, correlated poorly with what was generally considered serologic evidence of immunity. Re-vaccination of these young adults was associated with high rates of major side effects, with about 17% reporting significant fever, eye pain and the need for bed rest. Improper storage of measles vaccines and only about 67% rate of compliance were blamed for this failure, instead of an acknowledgement of the more plausible and real reason: the inability of the measles vaccines to prevent measles.

"Predictably, the programme to eradicate measles in the US by 1st October 1981 fell flat on its face. After 1981, instead of achieving eradication of measles, the US was hit repeatedly by major epidemics of measles, mostly in fully vaccinated communities. Atypical measles persisted as ‘continuing problem’ [Nichols (1979)]. The age of those contracting measles continued to climb well above 10 years and was associated with serious illnesses. Adults, and babies below the age of 2 years, often only a few months old, were now contracting measles.

"One of the quoted reasons for these outbreaks was use of the ‘ineffective formalin-inactivated (killed) measles vaccine, which was administered to 600,000 to 900,000 individuals from 1963 to 1967’ [Morbidity Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWR) 4 October 1984].

"Another MMWR report (June 1984) reported on a measles outbreak among high school students, all of whom were vaccinated on or after the age of one, in accordance with Illinois Law. The outbreak subsided spontaneously. Another outbreak of measles occurred in junior high schools in Hobbs, New Mexico, where 98% of students were vaccinated against measles shortly before the outbreak began (MMWR 1 February 1985).

"In the measles epidemic of 1984-85 in Auckland, New Zealand, [Hardy et al. (1986)], 34% of all measles cases were vaccinated, 9% were unsure and 67% were unvaccinated. However, the largest number of cases were in children one year old or less, that is, below the age at which they would be vaccinated. In the rest of the cases, the incidence in the vaccinated and unvaccinated was the same.

"Gustafson et al. (1987) described an outbreak of measles in a secondary school population in which more than 99% had records of vaccination with live measles vaccine. MMWR (2 September 1988) dealt with 76 measles outbreaks in the United States. Most of the cases were primary vaccine failures.

"These examples demonstrate that, while measles vaccination was compulsory, it was done with vaccines which had always been found to be effective during outbreaks of measles."201-209

"The history of mumps vaccination is a repetition of the history of vaccination against other childhood diseases like measles, rubella or whooping cough. For decade after decade medical journals have been publishing information on side effects and ineffectiveness of vaccines to prevent the diseases, side-by-side with papers claiming an illusory victory in the battle against these diseases."210

"Fiumara and Etkind (1982) described a mumps outbreak in Westwood, Massachusetts in 1981. 33 cases occurred altogether, of which 29 were vaccinated; 2 were unvaccinated and 1 did not know.

"The authors claimed that the efficacy of the monovalent vaccine was 130%. However, another look at their figures gives quite a different picture. The total number of students in the affected classes (9-12) was 1043. Of these, 455 were immunised with monovalent vaccine and 438 with MMR. One hundred and thirty were unimmunised. The likelihood of contracting mumps in these two groups was the same – 2.6% (2 out of 130 unvaccinated and 29 out 893 vaccinated). Vaccination did not protect at all even though 97.41% of those vaccinated did not contract mumps in this outbreak either.

"This outbreak demonstrates very clearly that there are factors other than the presence of antibody which prevent any person from contracting mumps at any given time.

"MMWR (27 July 1983) reported on an outbreak of 63 cases of mumps in six schools (Atlantic County, New Jersey). These 63 cases represented a 40% increase over the previous year’s mumps cases. Before 1978, mumps vaccination was not required for school entry in New Jersey. However, since 1978 mumps vaccination was required for school entry for children seven years of age or younger. The inquiry found that vaccination compliance was 95% and that poor compliance with the law was not the reason for this outbreak.

"Just as mumps itself can be associated with meningitis, so too may the mumps vaccine. Natural and vaccine strains of mumps viruses are neurotropic and meningotropic.

"Gray and Burns (1989) confirmed that it is the vaccine strain itself and the wild virus that causes vaccine-related mumps meningitis. The virus isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid 21 days after vaccination was identical to the vaccine strain (Urabe AM 9)."211-215

"As Cherry (1980) wrote, despite distribution of over 83 million doses of rubella vaccine since 1969, there were periodic upswings in incidence. There were also a shift in the age groups susceptible to rubella. ‘Essentially, we have controlled the disease in persons 14 years of age or younger but have given it a free hand in those 15 or older.’ He continued, ‘Of course, the point of rubella immunization is not prevention of rubella but preventing of the congenital rubella syndrome. Since 1969 and 1970, when the CDC’s National Congenital Rubella Registry listed 78 and 90 cases respectively, the number of cases has declined and apparently has remained relatively stable at about 30 to 40 per year (data for the last three years or so must be regarded as incomplete because of a common lag in recognition of the syndrome).’

Then he continued: ‘This decline in congenital rubella is curious because number of infections in women of childbearing age has remained the same. It is perhaps artifactual and explained by the fall in the fertility rate in the United States and also the more frequent use of therapeutic abortion. Anyway, it is clear that the apparent stability in the control of congenital rubella is precarious.’"216, 217

"A child who received the MMR vaccine can still get measles. (This occurred in 1987 in Texas where 96% of the cases were considered non-preventable, i.e. they were fully vaccinated, had a religious or medical exemption or they were born before 1957. This also occurred in 1989 in Texas where 72% of the cases were considered non-preventable.) These facts are from the Texas Department of Health."218

"In Oct/Nov 1990, clinical mumps developed in 54 students. 53 out of those 54 were fully vaccinated!"219, 219a

"About half of measles cases in the late 1980s resurgence were in adolescents and adults, most of whom were vaccinated as children, and the recommended booster shots may provide protection for less than 6 months. Furthermore, some healthcare professionals are concerned that the virus from the chicken pox vaccine may ‘reactivate later in life in the form of herpes zoster (shingles) or other immune system disorders. Dr. A Lavin of the Dept. of Pediatrics, St. Luke’s Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio, strongly opposed licensing the new vaccine. ‘Until we actually know…the risks involved in injecting mutated DNA [herpes virus] into the host genome [children]. The truth is, no one knows, but the vaccine is now licensed and recommended by health authorities."220-223

"The AMA reported recently that ‘measles is increasingly becoming a disease of adults,’ admitting that the demographic of this typically childhood disease are shifting to adults as vaccines wear off too early. Almost all childhood illnesses are deemed much more dangerous in adults. During epidemics, measles has been known to attack nearly 100% vaccinated populations. Similar statistics have been seen during mumps outbreaks. Rubella, which is very innocuous in childhood, is now threatening women of child-bearing age (the very group the shot was supposed to protect to prevent birth defects). Constant (and profitable) childhood illnesses. Yet, the policymakers are never apologetic."224

"Judging from the historical characteristics of chickenpox, I suspect that the reported number of cases of measles today represents significant under reporting, just as was probably the situation in the 1950s. More importantly, if the measles vaccine were abandoned tomorrow, I believe the number of cases of natural measles (like those of chickenpox today) would skyrocket. This strongly suggests that measles vaccine (like all vaccines) is not eradicating disease per se, but merely altering or suppressing it. Thus, the popularly held notion that vaccines can wipe out a disease or are presently eliminating the disease without presenting major complications in their wake, is highly unlikely. Along with great under reporting of disease generally, and the failure to report milder 'modified' cases of measles in vaccinated children is the likelihood that measles vaccine may be simply aborting natural measles infections, altering and delaying their natural expression. While the vaccine gets the credit for eliminating the disease, it has only reshuffled it, recreated it, into something far more costly and debilitating -- disease in later life."225

"In a study reported in The Lancet, two mumps vaccines were compared. One vaccine was more reactive and also more 'effective' in preventing mumps. When comparing vaccine-associated and infection-associated complication rates, their findings suggested that `it may not always be in the interest of the community to use the vaccine with the lowest possible complication rate.' With disease rates being so low, they expected to see risks associated with vaccination to exceed those associated with infection. 'Hence, there is a conflict of interest between the individual (risk associated with vaccination) and the group (benefits of herd immunity)'. How can there be a conflict of interest by protecting a single child from vaccine damage?"226, 227

"The Journal of the American Medical Association contains an article, 'Rubella Vaccine and Susceptible Hospital Employees: Poor Physician Participation'. It reports that the lowest vaccination rate for the German measles vaccine occurred among obstetrician gynecologists, with the next lowest rate occurring amongst pediatricians. The authors concluded that 'fear of unforeseen vaccine reactions' was the main reason for the low uptake rate of physicians."228

"Although the total number of cases of rubella is still small (0.56 cases per 100,000 in 1991) and the number of cases of CRS is limited, the reemergence of natural rubella has led to a campaign to increase vaccination coverage in all age groups; consequently, more adult women will be immunized against rubella, and complications resulting from increased immunization programs will be a matter of great concern. Unfortunately, the presently used vaccine has notable deficiencies. Like natural rubella, it causes joint symptoms in a significant proportion of women vaccines. Currently, in the United States, an increasing proportion of women entering childbearing age have not been immunized against rubella. When they receive rubella vaccine, acute joint complaints are common and occur in up to 25 percent of previously seronegative vaccinee; these symptoms may last from 1 day to 3 weeks after immunization."229

"Soon after measles vaccine was first administered, a new and serious problem arose: vaccinated children were contracting what became known in the medical literature as atypical measles.

"Rauh and Schmidt (1965) described 9 cases which occurred in 1963 in Cincinnati during an epidemic of measles. The authors followed 386 children who had received three doses of killed measles virus vaccine in 1961. Of these 386, 125 had been exposed to measles and 54 of them developed the disease. ‘It is obvious that three injections of killed vaccine had not protected a large percentage of children against measles when exposed within a period of two-and-a-half years after immunization…’ wrote the authors. Many of these children were so ill with high fever and pneumonia that they had to be hospitalized.

"Fulginiti et al (1967) described the occurrence of atypical measles in ten children who had received inactivated (killed) measles virus vaccine five to six years earlier. Petechial rash appeared first on feet and palms and then moved towards the body. Nine children developed pneumonia which resisted all treatment. Serious reactions also occurred in children originally injected with killed measles virus, and then re-vaccinated with live measles virus [Scott and Bonanno, (1967)]. Further authors not only described more cases of atypical measles occurring in vaccinated children, but also outbreaks of measles in fully vaccinated populations.

"Despite these worrying occurrences, other authors published articles on the benefits due to measles vaccinations [Axnick et al, 1968)]. Against all the evidence, measles vaccines continued to be described as effective and safe by some, yet at the same time, the medical literature was teeming with reports of the ineffectiveness of measles vaccines and of serious local systemic reactions to them [Buser (1967); Lennon (1967); Nader et al. (1968)]."230-236

"So why continue vaccinating against this normally innocuous disease, especially considering the well-documented side-effects of vaccination with available vaccines?

"In children, skin rash and lymphadenopathy following rubella vaccination have been described, as well as transient arthritis [Cooper et al. (1969)] and pain syndrome in the writs, hands and knees accompanied by a crouch [Kilroy et al. (1970)]

"Gilmartin et al (1972) described 36 children with myeloradiculo-neuritis syndrome following a mass rubella vaccine program. The reaction was seen with equal frequency in children given the HPV-77 DK12, HPV-77 DE5, and Cendehill vaccine. The highest incidence of reaction was seen in preschool children and appeared up to six weeks after vaccination. In many children the joint pain was recurrent over a long period of time. Abnormal nerve conduction velocity was a consistent laboratory finding.

"Spruance et al. (1972) described recurrent joint symptoms in children six to eight months old after they received the HPV-77 dog kidney rubella vaccine. The symptoms appeared two to seven weeks after vaccination and there were recurrent attacks at one to three months intervals lasting one to seven days.

"The question of effectiveness of rubella vaccine soon became a hot issue just as with the other vaccines: in epidemics of rubella a large percentage of victims were vaccinated [Rauh et al. (1972)]. Nevertheless, like other authors dealing with vaccine problems, these authors recommended intensified rubella vaccination.

"Klock & Rachelefsky (1973) described a rubella epidemic (over 1000 cases) between January and May 1971 in Casper, Wyoming. This occurred nine months after a rubella vaccination program in which 83% of elementary-school children and 52% of pre-school children were vaccinated. The concept that a highly immune group of prepubertal children will prevent the spread of rubella in the rest of the community was shown by this epidemic to be not valid."237-244

"In August 1991, the Institute of Medicine released a report on adverse effects of pertussis and rubella vaccines. The evidence indicated causal relationship between RA 27/3 rubella vaccine and acute arthritis in 13% to 15% of adult women."245, 246

"In 1981, the British National Childhood Encephalopathy Study concluded that there was a statistically significant association between measles vaccination and the onset of a serious neurological disorder within 14 days of receiving measles vaccine. The risk for previously normal children was estimated to be 1 in 87,000 measles vaccinations."247

"In 1991, the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is compelling scientific evidence that the rubella vaccine portion of the MMR shot can cause acute arthritis, with the highest incidence occurring in adult women who receive rubella vaccine (up to 15 percent) and that some individuals go on to develop chronic arthritis."248

"In 1994, the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is compelling scientific evidence that the measles vaccine and the MMR vaccine can cause anaphylaxis that can end in death and that the MMR vaccine can cause thrombocytopenia (a decrease in the number of platelets, the cells involved in blood clotting) that can end in death. The incidence of thrombocytopenia was estimated to be 1 case per 30,000 to 40,000 vaccinated children. The IOM also concluded that the measles vaccine portion of the MMR vaccine can cause vaccine-strain measles virus infection that can end in death."249

"In 1995, a British study concluded that adults who were vaccinated with measles vaccine as children were at much higher risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, as adults. Several researchers are looking into the possible link between inflammatory bowel disease and measles vaccine as well as other vaccines.

"The vaccine manufacturer’s product insert for MMR vaccine states ‘It is also not known whether [the vaccine] can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity’ and ‘it is not known whether measles or mumps vaccine virus is secreted in human milk. Recent studies have shown that lactating postpartum women immunized with live attenuated rubella vaccine may secrete the virus in breast milk and transmit it to breast-fed infants."250

"In 1995, there were 309 cases of measles reported in the U.S. Out of 219 cases where vaccination status was known, 123 (56 percent) had been vaccinated with at least one dose. Of 285 measles cases where age was known, 38 percent were under 5 years old and 39% were more than 20 years old."251

The Smallpox Vaccine

It was Jenner who first popularized the vaccine program with his smallpox vaccine. Yet a close look at history reveals that the procedure never worked. In England, a compulsory vaccination against smallpox was first introduced in 1852. Yet, from 1857 to 1859, the smallpox epidemic killed 14,244 people. From 1863 to 1865, a second outbreak claimed 20,059 lives. Despite this effect, a more stringent compulsory vaccination law was passed in 1867, and those who evaded inoculation were prosecuted. An intensive four year effort to vaccinate all people between the ages of 2 and 50 resulted in 97.5% of the population being vaccinated. The following year, England experienced its worst ever smallpox epidemic; 44,840 lives were lost. Overall, from 1871 to 1880, during this period of compulsory vaccination, the death rate from smallpox leapt from 28 to 46 per 100,000.

Medical research journalist and natural health advocate Neil Miller is author of Immunization Theory Versus Reality: An Expose on Vaccinations.252 Miller recounts a different history of the smallpox vaccine than is taught in school: "Modern day history begins with Edward Jenner back in 1796. He was the British physician who believed that you couldn’t catch smallpox if you were vaccinated against cowpox, which was a disease of cows back them, very similar to smallpox, but distinctly different.

"The history is a little bit more involved than that, however, because by the late 1700's, it was common knowledge that many diseases rarely occurred twice in the same person. So when scarlet fever or measles or smallpox broke out in a family it was considered wise to let the disease run its course. That way everyone involved might gain immunity from a future attack. We all know that, for example, when you catch measles naturally, which people generally don’t anymore because of the vaccines, but when you catch measles naturally you’re immune for life.

"Back in the 1700's, a procedure began, known as verulation where diseased matter was taken from a smallpox victim. Smallpox would leave an individual with pox marks and postules over his or her body. Diseased matter would inhabit the scabs. These scabs would be broken in order to take out the puss matter to insert into a healthy individual. They actually inflected a healthy individual by inserting the pus matter from a smallpox victim. That was what they called virulation, and that was the beginning of modern day vaccinations.

"It quickly became customary for the upper and middle classes to submit to the procedure. It was a considered a modern medical procedure and only people who could afford it were able to do it. But verulation was an uncertain and hazardous practice because it’s results were often indistinguishable from an ordinary attack of smallpox. Parents were generally frightened of it and only did it because they felt it was their obligation to do so.

"In 1796, Jenner came on the scene saying that when dairy maids caught cowpox they could no longer catch smallpox. His medical colleagues disputed his claims, as the research of the times indicated numerous cases of dairy maids and other individuals catching cowpox and coming down with smallpox. Yet Jenner persisted, and he published a treatise on this idea in 1798. He called his treatise Inquiry, and became famous for it.

"Jenner realized that cowpox did not protect against smallpox. What he was interested in was horse grease. Soon after dressing the heels of horses afflicted with grease--a detestable horse disease where their heels ooze puss--men would go out with puss on their hands and milk cows. (Sanitary awareness wasn’t what it is today.) So, men would change the shoes on the horses. They’d get this puss matter on their hands, and then they’d go and milk the cows. Jenner was interested in treatment with cows infected with cowpox from contact with horse grease. He called it horse grease cowpox. That’s what Jenner began recommending, and that’s what Jenner began experimenting on.

"His comrades at the time was appalled. They said it was disgusting; and that they wanted nothing to do with it. Jenner compromised his beliefs, changing back to the original premise that cowpox would cure smallpox.

"In 1802 and 1807, Jenner went before the House of Commons to petition for large sums of money. Parliament granted his bold request, and massive inoculation campaigns were launched. The problem was that soon thereafter, many, many cases of smallpox among the vaccinated were reported.

"I wanted to give a brief evolution of what I consider the campaign to eradicate smallpox because there are many little twists and turns in there. You begin with unsanitary living conditions and poor nutritional awareness. This results in regional and self-limiting outbreaks of smallpox. Many people don’t realize that before mass vaccinations for smallpox were taking place, smallpox cases were generally regional and self-limiting. The largest known epidemic was a few hundred cases until individuals began getting vaccinated. Once you’ve got these regional and self limiting outbreaks of smallpox then you begin with human experiments with virulation. When this fails, conduct human experiments with cowpox, horsepox, and horse grease cowpox. Then when this fails, deny it. People started coming down with smallpox after they were being vaccinated, so their answer to that was, no, it’s not taking place. They simply denied it. When this failed, because too many people were getting smallpox, they blamed it on spurious cowpox. Believe it or not, Jenner said that anyone coming down with smallpox after vaccination with his concoction wasn’t taking his a formula made to his specifications. So they called it spurious cowpox. Then they started blaming improperly administered injections. They started experimenting with two and three and four puncture marks simultaneously. When this failed, they recommended revaccination. When this failed, they began manipulating statistics by altering medical records and falsifying death certificates. When everyone began catching on, and vaccination rates dropped, and cases of smallpox dwindled, then they took full credit for eradicating the disease." In other words, the entire history upon which vaccination is based is flawed by fraud, miscalculation, bad science, and megalomania.

Today we assume that smallpox is nonexistent. Not so, according to Meryl Dorey:253 "Our organization and others have been saying for years that smallpox was never wiped out. It was simply redefined. In the 60's, there was an outcry against this vaccine because of the many problems surrounding it, and since there was very little smallpox occurring in the developed world, WHO decided that they were going to try and withdraw the smallpox vaccine. What happened was there was a redefinition. At that time, testing for the virus became more sophisticated. You no longer were suffering necessarily from smallpox. They would test it and find that it had different DNA. You’d have monkeypox or camelpox or some other form of pox. But it was still called variola, which is smallpox. And that’s what monkeypox in Africa is called.

"Clinically, the disease is exactly the same as smallpox. It has the same progression. It looks exactly the same. If you put a smallpox victim next to a monkeypox victim, you will not be able to tell the difference. As a matter of fact, with this outbreak of monkey pox in Africa--I think there have been over 500 cases in a very short time--they are suggesting that they use the smallpox vaccine again. Funny, if it’s not the same disease, why would the vaccine be effective? You wouldn’t use the measles vaccine to vaccinate against rubella, so why would you use a smallpox vaccine against monkeypox unless it’s the same disease? Be that as it may, this is proof that smallpox has not been wiped out.

"For many years, the medical community and the vaccine manufacturers have been holding up smallpox as the victory. They say, "see what we did with smallpox." and advise that with really good compliance they can wipe out all diseases. This ignores the fact that at the time the world was declared smallpox-free there was less than a 40 percent worldwide vaccination rate against the disease. The one thing they do not want to admit is that smallpox still exists. So they will call it monkeypox or camelpox."

"An outbreak of monkeypox in Africa – the largest outbreak ever in human – is raising concerns that the virus may have mutated. Writing in the journal Science (1997, 277, 312-313), Dr. Peter Jahrling of the US Army Medical Research Institute in Fort Detrick, Maryland, points out that monkeypox produces symptoms that are nearly identical to smallpox. ‘For practical purposes, smallpox is back,’ he said. There are several theories regarding what may be fueling the outbreak. One is a possible increase in human-to-human transmission, suggesting that the virus may have mutated. Until now, human to human transmission had been thought to be uncommon. But CDC researchers studying the current outbreak in the Congo say about three quarters of the cases reported are the result of secondary transmission of the virus.

"Another possibility is that people in the Congo may have increased their consumption animals carrying the monkeypox virus. A third theory is that the discontinuation 20 years ago of the smallpox vaccine (which also provided protection against monkeypox) may be creating an evergrowing pool of people with susceptibility to the animal virus. Meanwhile, scientists at the World Health Organization and the CDC are remaining vigilant for any further indications that the virus may have mutated to a form that has increased potential for human-to-human transmission."254, 255, 256

"A few years after smallpox was declared eradicated by WHO, smallpox vaccine was by physicians in an attempt to treat recurrent genital herpes simplex virus – with disastrous results. Injecting smallpox vaccine not only did not heal the original condition, it caused development of recurrent herpes lesions at the vaccination site. Mintz (1982) reported on one such case of the inappropriate use of smallpox vaccine."257

The Tetanus Vaccine

The dangers and ineffectiveness of the tetanus vaccine were reported in 1959 when the Medical Journal of Australia published a number of letters on the subject from concerned doctors. Here is a sample:

On July 18, 1959, Dr. Hunter writes, "Practically any study of the illness reveals many cases in which tetanus anti-toxins fail to prevent tetanus." The author explains that, according to the literature, 33% of individuals developed tetanus after receiving the prophylactic anti-serum. He concludes, "Thus it is seen that anti-serum is by no means efficacious in the prevention of tetanus in humans.

"Also, in these cases, the patient not only has the risk of contracting tetanus, but also the added risk of the complications of therapy. The complications of horse serum injections range from minor local reactions to reactions of gradually increasing severity, such as generalized signs of heart, lung and kidney involvement, neurological complications, some of which are of considerable danger to the patient, with cases of bronchial plexus, and polyneuritis.

"It would seem that if the figures that are quoted are correct, then a doctor who gives tetanus anti-toxin, should rather be sued for exposing the patient to unnecessary risk should serious complications arise. In fact, large sums of money have been paid by insurance companies to patients suffering from the complications of serum therapy."

Then there was this from a Dr. Taylor in the Medical Journal of Australia on April 18, 1959: "When presented with a break in the skin, recent or old, superficial or penetrating, the risk of tetanus infection... is approximately a one in 250,000 chance... eleven cases per annum in Victoria, population 2,700,000, assuming each person contracts one potentially tetanic lesion per year. If tetanus is contracted, he would have a 40-60% chance of recovery. Now, if an ATS (anti-tetanus serum) injection is given, he has a one in 50,000 to 200,000 chance of dying of anaphylactic shock. He has a three in 100 chance of developing moderately severe urticaria. After this explanation, a patient usually has second thoughts about receiving an injection of ATS."

In August 1964, the British Medical Journal carried this interesting statement by a Dr. Barnes: "Thorough wound toilet [cleaning] is the only treatment for a wound. And when it is carried out correctly, antibiotics are not necessary.... Thorough wound toilet makes [the] use of either tetanus antitoxin or prophylactic antibiotics unnecessary."

"In 1994 the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is compelling evidence to conclude that tetanus, DT and Td vaccines can cause Guillain-Barre syndrome including death; brachial neuritis; and death from anaphylaxis (shock)."258

The Tuberculosis Vaccine

"The only vaccine now being used to protect against mycobacterial infections is BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) BCG is an attenuated strain of M. bovis that is capable of multiplying in vaccinated individuals. Since the strains of mycobacteria used to prepare this vaccine have never been cloned, they are maintained by different methods in various laboratories throughout the world and yield different results. Thus, the products offered as "BCG" are not the same as those first used in 1921 to make a vaccine against tuberculosis. No other vaccine is as widely used as BCG. Approximately 100 million newborns and children received BCG in 1992. This relatively safe and stable vaccine is routinely given, as a single dose, at birth in countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Vaccination with BCG is part of the WHO Expanded Program of Immunization. Although health officials estimate that more than 3 billion doses have been given worldwide, it has not been recommended for use as a vaccine against tuberculosis in the United States; this decision is based, in part, on the assumption that since infection rates were low and falling, there was no compelling need for such a vaccine. Also, since BCG vaccination usually induces a positive reaction to PPD, it would negate the diagnostic value of the traditional 'skin test' for tuberculosis, although the Mantoux skin test is now being used as a diagnostic test.

"No other vaccine has been subjected to as many controlled trials of usefulness and effectiveness as BCG; however, such trials have yielded widely divergent measures of effectiveness. Although the vaccine neither prevents nor protects against initial infections, it is effective in tuberculosis in children, e.g., military tuberculosis and tuberculosis of the spine. Its effectiveness in adults has not been demonstrated consistently; some public health officials believe this may be due to inconsistencies and/or differences in the preparations of `BCG' vaccine used. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of BCG vaccines was sponsored by the CDC and conducted by workers from the Harvard School of Public Health. It showed that BCG is 51 percent effective."259

"Gregoraki, as Biochan had done before him, was able to show that vaccination with BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccine, a product used to immunize people against tuberculosis, could lead to the development of cancer by the recipient, and that there also existed a direct link between vaccinal concentration and vaccinal reactions. He stated that to avoid reactions, vaccines would have to be diluted to a point where they no longer would act as vaccines and would not be efficient. This created a need for repeated boosters, a treatment with no scientific foundation: not only is the recipient not protected, but the constant stimulation of the lymphocytes by foreign proteins can produce cancer, leukemia and other virulent diseases. Although he had been a Nobel Prize candidate, he lost professional standing once his findings regarding TB were published."260-270



80. Ibid.

81. "Measles Vaccine Failures: Lack of Sustained Measles Specific Immunoglobulin G Responses in Revaccinated Adolescents and Young Adults," Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 13(1), January 1994, p. 34-38.

82. "Measles Outbreak in 31 Schools: Risk Factors for Vaccine Failure and Evaluation of a Selective Revaccination Strategy," Canadian Medical Association Journal, 150(7), April 1, 1994, p. 1093-1098.

83. "Haemophilus B Disease after Vaccination with Haemophilus B Polysaccharide or Conjugate Vaccine," American Journal of Diseases of Children, 145(12), December 1991, p. 1379-1382.

84. "Sustained Transmission of Mumps in a Highly Vaccinated Population: Assessment of Primary Vaccine Failure and Waning Vaccine-Induced Immunity," Journal of Infectious Diseases, 169(1), January 1, 1994, p. 77-82.

85. "Secondary Measles Vaccine Failure in Healthcare Workers Exposed to Infected Patients," Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 14(2), February 1993, p. 81-86.

86. MMWR, 38(8-9), December 29, 1989.

87. MMWR, 33(24), June 22, 1984.

88. "Failure to Reach the Goal of Measles Elimination. Apparent Paradox of Measles Infections in Immunized Persons," Archives of Internal Medicine, 154(16), August 22, 1994, p. 1815-1820.

89. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 79(2), May 1996, p. 163-170.

90. "Outbreak of Paralytic Poliomyelitis in Oman; Evidence for Widespread Transmission Among Fully Vaccinated Children," Lancet, 338, September 21, 1991, p. 715-720.

91. Scheibner, 1993, p. 56-57.

92. Gary Null Interview with Meryl Dorey, December 17, 1997.

93. Gary Null Interview with Jamie Murphy, December 18, 1997.

94. Gary Null Interview with Barbara Lo Fisher, April 11, 1995.

95. Gary Null Interview with Vera Schreiber, January 13, 1998.

96. Scheibner, 1993, p. 26-27.

97. R.K. Ditchburn, "Whooping Cough after Stopping Pertussis Immunisation," British Medical Journal, 1, 1979, p. 1601-1603.

98. Scheibner, 1993, p. 82-83.

99. Cournoyer, p. 6-7.

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102. Cournoyer, p. 51.

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105. Scheibner, 1993, p. 52.

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108. B.L. Fisher, 1997, p. 36.

109. Schumacher.

110. JAMA, July 7, 1994.

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112. H.L. Coulter, Vaccination, Social Violence, and Criminality, Berkeley, CA, North

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113. Coulter & Fisher, 1985.

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115. Connaught Laboratories, Inc. Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Absorbed USP (for Pediatric Use), Physicians Desk Reference, 1989.

116. Cournoyer, p. 41.

117. J. Hyman, "Children at Risk," The Democrat & Chronicle, April 1987.

118. Cournoyer, p. 42.

119. Whooping Cough, the DPT Vaccine and Reducing Vaccine Reactions, Vienna, VA, National Vaccine Information Center.

120. "Accelerated Development of Vaccines 1994," p. 21.

121. Harold Buttram, "Letter to the Editor," Townsend Letter for Doctors, August/September 1995.

122. Scheibner, 1993, p. 14.

123. p. 23.

124. p. 28.

125. G.T. Stewart, "Vaccination Against Whooping-Cough. Efficacy Versus Risks," Lancet, January 29, 1977, p. 234-237.

126. Scheibner, 1993, p. 45-46.

127. p. 49.

128. S.S. Hutchins, et al., "Current Epidemiology of Pertussis in the United States," Tokai Journal of Exp Clin Med, 13(Suppl.), 1988, p. 103-109.

129. Scheibner, 1993, p. 246.

130. M.T. Osterholm, et al., "Lack of Efficacy of Haemophilus b Polysaccharide Vaccine in Minnesota," JAMA, 260(10), 1988, p. 1423-1428.

131. R.S. Daum, et al., "Decline in Serum Antibody to the Capsule of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B in the Immediate Post-Immunization Period," Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 1989, p. 742-747.

132. J. Storsaeter, et al., "Mortality and Morbidity from Invasive Bacterial Infections During a Clinical Trial of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Sweden," Pediatric Inf Dis Journal, 7(9), 1988, p. 637-645.

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134. Scheibner, p. 34-35.

135. p. 58.

136. Phillips, 1997.

137. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

138. Scheibner, 1993.

139. W.C. Torch, "Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) Immunization: A Potential Cause of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)," Neurology, 32(4), 1982.

140. Phillips, 1997.

141. "Nature and Rates of Adverse Reactions Associated with DTP and DT Immunizations in Infants and Children," Pediatrics, 68(5), November 1981.

142. The Fresno Bee, December 5, 1984.

143. B. Trollfors & E. Rabo, "Whooping Cough in Adults," British Medical Journal, September 12, p. 696-697.

144. Scheibner, 1993, p. 127.

145. D.M. Granoff, et al., "Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Children Vaccinated with Type b Polysaccaharide Vaccine," NEJM, 315, 1986, p. 1584-1590.

146. Scheibner, 1993, p. 128-130.

147. R.S. Daum, et al., "Decline in Serum Antibody to the Capsule of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B in the Immediate Postimmunization Period," Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 1989, p. 742-747.

148. E.E. Hiner & C.E. Frasch, "Spectrum of Disease Due to Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Occurring in Vaccinated Children," Journal of Infectious Disease, 158(2), 1988, p. 343-348.

149. D.M. Granoff, et al., "Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Children Vaccinated with Type b Polysaccharide Vaccine," NEJM, 315, 1986, p. 1584-1590.

150. G. Bjune, et al., "Effect of Outer Membrane Vesicle Against Group B Meningococcal Disease in Norway," Lancet, 338(8775), 1991, p. 1093-1096.

151. E.W.S. Smith & R.E. Haynes, "Changing Incidence of Haemophilus Influenzae b Vaccines," Pediatrics, 50(5), 1972, p. 723-727.

152. M.D. Decker, et al., "Comparative Trial in Infants of Four Conjugate Haemophilus Influenzae b Vaccines," Journal of Pediatrics, 120, 1992, p. 184-189.

153. J.I. Ward, et al., "Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Anticapsular Antibody Response to PRP-Pertussis and PRP-D Vaccines in Alaska Native Infants," Journal of Infectious Disease, 158, 1988, p. 719-723.

154. M. Santosham, et al., "The Efficacy in Navajo Infants of a Conjugate Vaccine Consisting of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Polysaccharide and Neissereia Meningitis Outer-Membrane Protein Complex," NEJM, 324(25), 1991, p. 1767-1772.

155. Scheibner, 1993, p. 136.

156. H. Peltola, "H. Influenzae in the Post-vaccination era," Lancet, 341, 1993, p. 864-865.

157. Scheibner, 1993, p. 193.

158. J.W.G Smith, "Vaccination in the Control of Influenza. Interim Report to the Director of the Public Health Laboratory Service on a Collaborative Study with the Post Office," Lancet, August 10, 1974, p. 330-333.

159. B.L., Fisher, 1997, p. 43.

160. MMWR, 42, p. 752-755.

161. MMWR, September 8, 1995.

162. p. 196-198.

163. E.S. Hurwitz, et al., "Guillain-Barre Syndrome and the 1978-79 Influenza Vaccine," NEJM, 304, 1981, p. 1557-1561.

164. J.E. Kaplan, et al., "Guillain-Barre Syndrome in the United States, 1978-1981: Additional Observation from the National Surveillance System," Neurology, 33, May 1983, p. 633-637.

165. Scheibner, 1993, p. 42.

166. Gary Null Interview with Meryl Dorey, December 17, 1997.

167. "Vaccinations: How Safe and How Effective," Nexus, August- September, 1993, p. 22.

168. The New England Journal of Medicine, September 11, 1989, p. 1333.

169. Scheibner, 1993, p. 8.

170. C. Marwick, "Hepatitis B Vaccine Appears Headed for Pediatric Immunization Schedule," JAMA, 265(12), 1991, p. 1502.

171. Scheibner, 1993, p. 9-10.

172. Freed, et al., Pediatrics, 91(4), 1993, p. 699-702.

173. "Vaccinations: How Safe and How Effective," Nexus, August- September, 1993, p. 65.

174. British Medical Journal, July 21, 1990.

175. Scheibner, 1993, p. 4-5.

176. F.E. Shaw, et al., "Postmarketing Surveillance for Neurologic Adverse Events Reported after Hepatitis B Vaccination," American Journal of Epidemiology, 127(2), 1988, p. 337-352.

177. Scheibner, 1993, p. 43-44.

178. Gary Null Interview with Jamie Murphy, December 18, 1997.

179. Gary Null Interview with Jamie Murphy, April 7, 1995.

180. Gary Null Interview with Meryl Dorey, December 17, 1997.

181. Curtis Cost, Vaccines are Dangerous, Brooklyn, NY, A&B Books, 1991, p. 21-22.

182. New England Journal of Medicine, 32, 1989, p. 75-81.

183. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, May 9, 1990, p. 2467-2471.

184. MMWR, 38, 1989, 329-330

185. E. McBean, Vaccines Do Not Protect (no other source available).

186. Cournoyer, p. 80.

187. National Health Federation Bulletin, November, 1969.

188. Scheibner, 1993, p. 92.

189. Sawada et al., Lancet, 342, August 7, 1993, p. 371.

190. Scheibner, 1993, p. 106-107.

191. K.M. Kaplan, et al., "Mumps in the Workplace. Further Evidence of the Changing Epidemiology of a Childhood Vaccine-Preventable Disease," JAMA, 260(10), 1988, p. 1434-1438.

192. Scheibner, 1993, p. 114.

193. B. Allan, "Rubella Immunisation," Aust Journal of Med Tech, 4, 1973, p. 26-27.

194. M. Vorey, The Australian Vaccination Network Newsletter, November 1997.

195. British Medical Journal, July 4, 1987.

196. Miller, 1996, p. 82.

197. The Arizona Republic, May 26, 1990.

198. "Accelerated Development of Vaccines 1994," p. 18.

199. "Adult Rubella at New High," (journal not clear), 7(3), June 1996, p. 9.

200. Lancet, April 6, 1996.

201. Scheibner, 1993, p. 86-89.

202. K.H. Rand, et al., "Measles in Adults: An unforeseen Consequence of Immunization?" JAMA, 235, 1976, p. 1028-1031.

203. J.A. Bellanti, "Biologic Significance of the Secretory Gamma A Immunoglobulins," Pediatrics, 48(5), 1971, p. 715-729.

204. J.D. Cherry, "The ‘New’ Epidemiology of Measles and Rubella," Hospital Practice, July, 1980, p. 49-57.

205. A.R. Hinman, "The Opportunity and Obligation to Eliminate Measles from the United States," JAMA, 242(11), 1979, p. 1157-1162.

206. P.D. Reuman, "Measles: Ready for Eradication?" Annals of Internal Medicine, 90(6), 1979, p. 978-980.

207. E.M. Nichols, "Atypical Measles: A Continuing Problem," American Journal of Public Health, 69(2), 1979, p. 160-162.

208. I.R.B. Hardy, et al., "Measles Epidemic in Auckland 1984-1985," New Zealand Medical Journal, May 13, 1987, p. 273-275.

209. T.L. Gustafson, et al., "Measles Outbreak in a Fully Immunized Secondary-School Population," NEJM, 316(13), 1987, p. 771-774.

210. Scheibner, 1993, p. 97.

211. p. 102.

212. N.J. Fiumara & P.H. Etking, "Mumps Outbreak in Westwood, Massachusetts – 1981. Epidemiologic Notes and Reports," MMWR, 33(29), 1982, p. 421-430.

213. Ibid.

214. J.A. Gray & S.M. Burns, "Mumps Meningitis Following Measles, Mumps and Rubella Immunisation," Lancet, 2, 1989, p. 98.

215. Ibid.

216. Scheibner, 1993, p. 111.

217. J.D. Cherry, "The ‘New’ Epidemiology of Measles and Rubella," Hospital Practice, July, 1980, p. 49-57.

218. K. Schumacher, Vaccine Information & Awareness Web Site.

219. Ibid.

219a. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 149(7), July 1995, p. 774-778.

220. Phillips, 1997.

221. K.M. Severyn, Dayton Daily News, June 3, 1995.

222. "Consumer Group Warns Use of New Chicken Pox Vaccine in All Healthy Children May Cause More Serious Disease," NVIC Press Release.

223. "Measles and Antibody Titre Levels," Vaccine Weekly, January 1996.

224. L.K. Jillani, "Five Baffling Vaccination Facts," Internet Document.

225. Murphy, p. 114.

226. Cournoyer, p. 7.

227. D.J. Nokes & R.M. Anderson, "Vaccine Safety versus Vaccine Efficacy in Mass Immunisation Programs," Lancet, 338, November 23, 1991, p. 1309.

228. "Vaccinations: How Safe and How Effective," Nexus, August-September, 1993, p. 64.

229. "Accelerated Development of Vaccines 1994," p. 30.

230. Scheibner, 1993, p. 84.

231. L.W. Rauh & R. Schmidt, "Measles Immunization with Killed Virus Vaccine," American Journal Dis Child, 109, 1965, p. 232-237.

232. V.A. Fulginiti, et al., "Altered Reactivity to Measles Virus. Atypical Measles in Children Previously Immunized with Inactivated Measles Virus Vaccines," JAMA, 202(12), 1967, p. 1075-1080.

233. T.F Scott & D.E. Bonanno, "Reactions to Live-Measles-Virus Vaccine in Children Previously Inoculated with Killed-Virus Vaccine," NEJM, 277(5), 1967, p. 248-251.

234. F. Buser, "Side Reaction to Measles Vaccination Suggesting the Arthus Phenomenon," NEJM, 277(5), 1967, p. 250-251.

235. R.G. Lennon & P. Isaacson, "Delayed Dermal Hypersensitivity Following Killed Measles Vaccine," Journal of Pediatrics, 71(4), 1967, p. 525-529.

236. P.R. Nader, et al., "Atypical Exanthema Following Exposure to Natural Measles. Eleven Cases of Children Previously Inoculated with Killed Vaccine," Journal of Pediatrics, 72(1), 1968, p. 22-28.

237. Scheibner, 1993, p. 112-113.

238. L.Z. Cooper, et al., "Transient Arthritis after Rubella Vaccination,"American Journal Dis Child, 118, 1969, p. 218-225.

239. A.W. Kilroy, et al., "Two Syndromes Following Rubella Immunization," JAMA, 214(13), 1970, p. 2287-2292.

240. R.C. Gilmartin, et al., "Rubella Vaccine Myeloradiculoneuritis," Journal of Pediatrics, 80(3), 1972, p. 406-412.

241. S.L. Spruance, et al., "Recurrent Joint Symptoms in Children Vaccinate with HPV-77DK12 Rubella Vaccine," Journal of Pediatrics, 80(3), 1972, p. 413-417.

242. J.L. Rauh, et al., "Rubella Surveillance and Vaccination at Adolescence," American Journal Dis Child, 124, 1972, p. 27-28.

243. L.E. Klock & G.S. Rachelefsky, "Failure of Rubella Herd Immunity During an Epidemic," NEJM, 288(2), 1973, p. 69-72.

244. G.S. Rachelefsky & K.L. Herrmann, "Congenital Rubella Surveillance Following Epidemic Rubella in a Partially Vaccinated Community," Journal of Pediatrics, 84(4), 1974, p. 474-478.

245. Scheibner, 1993, p. 121.

246. C.P. Howson & H.V. Fineberg, "Adverse Events Following Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. Summary of a Report of the Institute of Medicine," JAMA, 267(3), 1992, p. 392-396.

247. Scheibner, 1993, p. 38.

248. p. 38.

249. p. 38.

250. p. 39.

251. p. 40.

252. Gary Null Interview with Neil Miller, January 13, 1998.

253. Gary Null Interview with Meryl Dorey, December 17, 1997.

254. Vorey.

255. P. Jarhling, Science, 277, 1997, p. 312-313.

256. Infect Med, 14(9), 1997, p. 676-679.

257. Scheibner, 1993, p. 212.

258. Scheibner, 1993, p. 37.

259. "Accelerated Development of Vaccines 1994," p. 33-34.

260. De Latte, p. 6.

261. A. Elben, "Vaccination Condemned by All Competent Doctors," Better Life Research, Connecticut, 1981.

262. P. Rintahaka, "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Finland, 1969-1980," Health Education, 3, 1985, Finland.

263. James, 1988.

264. "Abnormal T-Lymphocyte Subpopulation in Healthy Subjects after Tetanus Booster Immunization," New England Journal of Medicine, 310(3), 1984.

265. source not available

266. M.D. Innis, "Immunization and Childhood Leukemia," Lancet, June 26, 1963.

267. L. Grigoraki, "Tuberculosis and BCG Vaccine," Monographs Scientific, 1948.

268. S.M. Suster, et al., "Induction of Cutaneous Plasma Cell Tumor as a Complication of Adjuvant Immunotherapy with Methanol Extraction Residue of BCG," Oncology, 44, 1987, p. 23-26.

269. G.N. Sukhtskaia, et al., "Characteristics of the Changes in the Blood Systems of Rat Fetuses Sensitized with BCG Vaccine," Probl Tuberc, 1, 1988, p. 56-57.

270. A.S. Mustafa et al., "BCG Induced CD4+ Cytoxic T Cells from BCG Vaccinated Healthy Subjects: Relation Between Cytoxicity and Suppression in Vitro," Clinical Experiments in Immunology, August, 1987.